Over the 2006- 2007 we have had several opportunities for media coverage. Newspapers have done stories and several radio show interviews have been done as well. The following are National Post, Calgary Sun a couple times and for the radio it has been AM 640 Toronto Radio, JACK FM Matt and Eric morning show, CTV National a couple times. The Calgary Space Workers thank them for their interest
Anorthite By Micheal Bakk
From the Apollo 11 samples only 2% was anorthite however, from Apollo 16 almost all the rocks were anorthite. It was concluded that highlands of the Moons crust consist of rocks that include high quantities of plagioclase feldspars known as anorthite. There are also rocks rich in anorthite that have names like gabbroic-anorthosite, noritic-anorthosite, or troctolite-anorthositic. Plagioclase is the main component and is thus the highest in quantity
Plagioclase is within the feldspar family. Rather than referring to a particular mineral with a specific chemical composition, plagioclase is often referred to as a part of a (from the Greek "oblique fracture") plagioclase feldspar series. The ranges are from albite to anorthite (with respective compositions NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8), where sodium and calciumatoms can substitute for each other.
Within the range it can be seen ( NaAlSi3O8to CaAl2Si2O8 ) that thealuminum silicate is common. Aluminum on the Moon can be used for many applications but to name a few, in frames of buildings, with the high strength for lunar gravity it can be used to support heavyer loads and with no oxygen on the moon it can be polished to a mirror shine for reflecting light and stay unoxidized (clean and maintain its shine)for longer periods.
Gabbroic-anorthosite 60-90% plagioclase, the rest is mostly clinopyroxene
Clinopyroxene is a form of pyroxene and typically contains some calcium. It is mostly found to be common in mare basalts [Ca(Mg,Fe)Si2O6].Examples of clinopyroxeneappear as crystal or glass. Two types are found on the lunar surface,olive-green olivine and black to dark-green clinopyroxene that occurres in lava. As mentioned below by Lori Walton, all the needed minerals for gem-stones are on the moon.By process gems can be made but the presents of clinopyroxene could also have caused gemstones to be formed naturally in the regolith. Gemstones can be used to cut glass and stone on the Moon surface to allow better building strategies.
From EXPLORATION CRITERIA FOR Coloured Gemstone Deposits in the Yukon by Lori Walton http://www.geology.gov.yk.ca/publications/openfile/2004/of2004_10.pdf HEAVY MINERALS ASSOCIATED WITH RUBY OR SAPPHIRE A characteristic set of heavy minerals is associated with alluvial ruby and sapphire deposits derived from alkali basalt. The most common minerals are listed below: • Black spinel: may be partly corroded • Black clinopyroxene • Zircon: brown to pale reddish and orange-brown • Garnet: mainly pyrope, pale to dark reddish brown • Ilmenite • Magnetite • Olivine Less common: phlogopite, sanidine
Lunar Anorthosite compliments of Wikipedia
Noritic anorthosite 60 to 90% plagioclase and the rest of it is orthopyroxene. Orthopyroxene with the chemical formula of(Mg,Fe)2 SiO3 it is a form of pyroxene. It comes in two types enstatite and ferrosilite. The chemical enstatite contains 40.0% MgO and 60.0% SiO2. The chemical ferrosilite (very rare on earth but common on the moon) contains 40.0% FeO and 60.0% SiO2. These can be electrolyzed (byelectrolysis) to produce soft iron, cast iron and steel as well as ceramic blocks of a refractory (high heat resistant) quality.
Troctolite-anorthositic 60-90% plagioclase, the rest mostly olivine
Olivinehas magnesiumironsilicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. It is one of the most common minerals on Earth.Magnesium-rich olivine has a high melting point and is used in the manufacture of refractory material.Olivine typically has an olive-green color this is a result of traces of nickel.This is a valuable resource on the moon so as to make lithium-ion batteries to store electrical power.Below is a breakdown on the development of phosphates that are important to use as a cathode for lithium-ion. batteries.
Olivine compliments of www.webmineral.com
From Nano-network electronic conduction in iron and nickel olivine phosphates. PS Herle, B Ellis, N Coombs, LF Nazar University of Waterloo, Department of Chemistry, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo Ontario Canada N2L 3G1. http://www.nano-biology.net/showabstract.php?pmid=14991015 The provision of efficient electron and ion transport is a critical issue in an exciting new group of materials based on lithium metal phosphates that are important as cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. Much interest centres on olivine-type LiFePO(4), the most prominent member of this family. Whereas the one-dimensional lithium-ion mobility in this framework is high, the electronically insulating phosphate groups that benefit the voltage also isolate the redox centres within the lattice. The pristine compound is a very poor conductor (sigma approximately 10(-9) S cm(-1)), thus limiting its electrochemical response. One approach to overcome this is to include conductive phases, increasing its capacity to near-theoretical values. There have also been attempts to alter the inherent conductivity of the lattice by doping it with a supervalent ion. Compositions were reported to be black p-type semiconductors with conductivities of approximately 10(-2) S cm(-1) arising from minority Fe(3+) hole carriers. Our results for doped (and undoped) LiMPO(4) (M = Fe, Ni) show that a percolating nano-network of metal-rich phosphides are responsible for the enhanced conductivity. We believe our demonstration of non-carbonaceous-network grain-boundary conduction to be the first in these materials, and that it holds promise for other insulating phosphates.
Anorthite compliments of www.galleries.com
Anorthite is one of the main materials that have been found on the Moon. Anorthite is a white, plagioclase feldspar. It is this kind of rock that gives the highlands on the Moon their pale color. A rock brought back by Apollo 16 is a piece of Anorthosite (90% anorthite) from the Cayley plains in the highlands of the Moon. The rock was mostly made of anorthite, while having dark specks that are a mineral known as pyroxene.
We know that aluminum silicate is common and can be used for reflective dishes to divert and concentrate heat and light. We should be able to create saws and cutting equipment to cut stone and glass for increased construction strategies. We know now that we can produce soft iron, cast iron and steel as well as ceramic blocks of a refractory quality. We can consider the development of phosphates that are important to use as a cathode for lithium-ion batteries.It is concluded that the Moons crust consists of valuable building materials in the form of high quantities of anorthite.
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